# The limits of vertical acceleration

The theory of vertical movement. The parabolic projectile motion An object thrown in the air, near the earth’s surface, moves along a parabolic path under the action of gravity only. The only force of significance that acts on the object is gravity, which acts downward to cause a downward acceleration. Because of the object’s inertia, no external horizontal force is needed…

# British Railway Track

Another classic book it sure is “British Railway Track Design, Construction and Maintenance”, edited by Geoffrey H Cope and having around 40 contributors for writing the 30 chapters of this essential track compendium. Its last six edition was published in 1993 by The Permanent Way Institution. Presenting the essential principles but also the British specifics…

# Alternative Approach to Permanent Way Alignment Design Explained&Challenged

The slides of the presentation I gave in November at the West of England section meeting of the Permanent Way Institution:   The main topics presented: – Cant parameters definition. The origin of the 11.82 (UK) cant constant. Ways of applying cant. – Track geometry recording. Track Quality Standard deviation. Inherent standard deviation. Quality bands…

# La voie ferrée

When it comes to Railway track engineering literature, there are a few books we can consider “classic”. Even old, some very old, these books still have significant railway engineering value and can be always a good reference both for young and inexperienced engineers as for the ones that already have robust railway track experience and…

# Maximum joint expansion gap

A rail joint is a track component that connects two pieces of rail and it provides room for rail expansion and contraction due to the changes in temperature. The mechanical rail joint is designed to allow a gap variation and, as such, has two well defined limits of this gap. The minimum gap of a mechanical rail…

# How is the cant measured?

The good old times Since the early beginnings of the railway, the track engineers were aware of the centrifugal forces influence to the train riding when passing through a curved section of track. To compensate this influence, the track was inclined laterally by creating a positive level difference between the outer and inner rails of a…

# Why a right hand curve is positive?

In transportation engineering there is the following signage convention  for curves in horizontal alignment design: a right hand curve is considered positive a left hand curve is considered negative This convention is considered relative to the stationing direction of that alignment. This signage convention is established in the following way (see the figure above):

# Virtual Transition

This is an animation showing how a PWay Track Horizontal Alignment Virtual Transition is defined by the trajectory of the vehicle centre, when is passing over a railway track section with a sudden change in curvature: The nature of this curve is presented in this post: THE VIRTUAL TRANSITION CURVATURE VARIATION. More details about this principle…

# Buckling prevention

The track buckling happens in hot weather because of a multitude of factors but it is massively influenced by the track longitudinal and lateral resistances. Both these resistances have three levels of action: Figure 1. The three levels of track lateral and longitudinal resistance – between rail and fastening – at this level all the modern fastenings are behaving…

# Cant and Cant Deficiency. Where is the 11.82 coming from?

A railway vehicle moving along a circular curve is subjected to an inertial centrifugal acceleration (ac), directly proportional with its speed and in reverse proportion with the curve radius. This lateral acceleration is perceived by the passengers as an uncomfortable sensation and, above a certain limit, endangers the lateral stability of the running vehicle. In…